Academic Medicine

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Academic Medicine serves as an international forum for the exchange of ideas and information about policy, issues, and research concerning academic medicine, including strengthening the quality of medical education and training, enhancing the search for biomedical knowledge, advancing research in health services, and integrating education and research into the provision of effective health care.

No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageInternal medicine (IM) residents frequently perform invasive bedside procedures during residency training. Bedside procedure training in IM programs may compromise patient safety. Current evidence suggests that IM training programs rely heavily on the number of procedures completed during training as a proxy for resident competence instead of using objective postprocedure patient outcomes. The authors posit that the results of procedural training effectiveness should be reframed with outcome metrics rather than process measures alone. This article introduces the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) approach, which originated in the nuclear industry to increase safety margins, to help assess and reduce bedside procedural risks. Training program directors are encouraged to use ALARA calculations to define the risk trade-offs inherent in current procedural training and assess how best to reliably improve patient outcomes. The authors describe 5 options to consider: training all residents in bedside procedures, training only select residents in bedside procedures, training no residents in bedside procedures, deploying 24-hour procedure teams supervised by IM faculty, and deploying 24-hour procedure teams supervised by non-IM faculty. The authors explore how quality improvement approaches using process maps, fishbone diagrams, failure mode effects and analyses, and risk matrices can be effectively implemented to assess training resources, choices, and aims. Future research should address the drivers behind developing optimal training programs that support independent practice, correlations with patient outcomes, and methods that enable faculty to justify their supervisory decisions while adhering to ALARA risk management standards.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Performing a gynecological exam is an essential skill for physicians. While interventions have been implemented to optimize how this skill is taught in medical school, it remains an area of concern and anxiety for many medical students. To date, a comprehensive assessment of these interventions has not been done. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature on interventions that aim to improve medical student education on gynecological exams. Method The authors searched 6 databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, and ERIC [Proquest]) from inception to August 4, 2020. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: focus on medical students, intervention with the purpose of teaching students to better perform gynecological exams, and reported outcomes/evaluation. Extracted data included study location, study design, sample size, details of the intervention and evaluation, and context of the pelvic exam. All outcomes were summarized descriptively; key outcomes were coded as subjective or objective assessments. Results The search identified 5,792 studies; 50 met the inclusion criteria. The interventions described were diverse, with many controlled studies evaluating multiple methods of instruction. Gynecological teaching associates (GTAs), or professional patients, were the most common method of education. GTA-led teaching resulted in improvements in student confidence, competence, and communication skills. Physical adjuncts, or anatomic models and simulators, were the second most common category of intervention. Less resource-intensive interventions, such as self-directed learning packages, online training modules, and video clips, also demonstrated positive results in student comfort and competence. All studies highlighted the need for improved education on gynecological exams. Conclusions The literature included evaluations of numerous interventions for improving medical student comfort and competence in performing gynecological exams. GTA-led teaching may be the most impactful educational tool described, though less resource-intensive interventions can also be effective.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageNo abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageProblem In an ideal learning health care system (LHS), clinicians learn from what they do and do what they learn, closing the evidence-to-practice gap. In operationalizing an LHS, great strides have been made in knowledge generation. Yet, considerable challenges remain to the broad uptake of identified best practices. To bridge the gap from generating actionable knowledge to applying that knowledge in clinical practice, and ultimately to improving outcomes, new information must be disseminated to and implemented by frontline clinicians. To date, the dissemination of this knowledge through traditional avenues has not achieved meaningful practice change quickly. Approach Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) developed QuizTime, a smartphone application learning platform, to provide a mechanism for embedding workplace-based clinician learning in the LHS. QuizTime leverages spaced education and retrieval-based practice to facilitate practice change. Beginning in January 2020, clinician–researchers and educators at VUMC designed a randomized, controlled trial to test whether the QuizTime learning system influenced clinician behavior in the context of recent evidence supporting the use of balanced crystalloids rather than saline for intravenous fluid management and new regulations around opioid prescribing. Outcomes Whether spaced education and retrieval-based practice influence clinician behavior and patient outcomes at the VUMC system level will be tested using the data currently being collected. Next Steps These findings will inform future directions for developing and deploying learning approaches at scale in an LHS, with the goal of closing the evidence-to-practice gap.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Competency-based assessment, using entrustable professional activities (EPAs), is rapidly being implemented worldwide without sufficient agreement on the essential elements of EPA-based assessment. The rapidity of implementation has left little time to understand what works in what circumstances and why or why not. The result is the attempted execution of a complex service intervention without a shared mental model for features needed to remain true to implementing an EPA assessment framework as intended. The purpose of this study was to identify the essential core components necessary to maintain integrity in the implementation of this intended intervention. Method A formal consensus-building technique, the Delphi process, was used to identify core components for implementing an EPA-based assessment framework. Twelve EPA experts from the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands participated in this process in February and March 2020. In each Delphi round, participants rated possible core components on a scale from 1 to 6, with 1 reflecting the worst fit and 6 the best fit for EPA-based assessment implementation. Predetermined automatic inclusion and exclusion criteria for candidate core components were set at ≥ 80% of participants assigning a value of 5 or 6 and ≥ 80% assigning a value of 1 or 2, respectively. Results After 3 rounds, participants prioritized 10 of 19 candidate core components for inclusion: performance prediction, shared local mental model, workplace assessment, high-stakes entrustment decisions, outcomes based, value of the collective, informed clinical competency committee members, construct alignment, qualitative data, and entrustment decision consequences. The study closed after 3 rounds on the basis of the rankings and comments. Conclusions Using the core components identified in this study advances efforts to implement an EPA assessment framework intervention as intended, which mitigates the likelihood of making an incorrect judgment that the intervention demonstrates negative results.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
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Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
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Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
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Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
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Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
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Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageProblem In March 2020, the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread rapidly within the United States and began overwhelming the health care system. To conserve personal protective equipment, reduce the spread of the virus, and keep student learners safe, leaders of medical schools across the country made the difficult decision to suspend in-person clinical experiences. As medical students were sent home and hospital systems ramped up their response to the virus, many essential health care workers (HCWs) faced an immediate challenge. As “nonessential” services such as schools and daycare centers abruptly closed, HCWs serving on the frontlines in inpatient settings needed a way to both fight the pandemic and care for their children. Approach Medical students at Oregon Health & Science University were able to rapidly OR organize to provide childcare for essential HCWs. For roughly 8 weeks following the state of emergency (March 13 through May 15, 2020), students used Twitter and emerging technology to match families in need of childcare with a trainee volunteer. Outcomes By May 15th, the service had successfully fulfilled 181 of the 202 requests for childcare (90%) over the course of 8 weeks. Of the 181 completed childcare requests, 172 (95%) were fulfilled by an individual (1:1 volunteer-to-household pairing), and 9 (5%) were fulfilled by 2 or more volunteers. Next Steps The trainees who provided childcare will apply the skills learned (e.g., clear communication, grassroots organizing, triaging, leveraging new technology) to patient care. Broader applications for this system include organizing volunteers to conduct contract tracing or to provide public health information in languages other than English. Future research includes examining the effect of the service on the productivity, morale, and mental health of both those who provided and received childcare.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) recently announced 2 policy changes: shifting from numeric score reporting on the Step 1 examination to pass/fail reporting and limiting examinees to 4 attempts for each Step component. In light of these policies, exam measures other than scores, such as the number of examination attempts, are of interest. Attempt limit policies are intended to ensure minimum standards of physician competency, yet little research has explored how Step attempts relate to physician practice outcomes. This study examined the relationship between USMLE attempts and the likelihood of receiving disciplinary actions from state medical boards. Method The sample population was 219,018 graduates from U.S. and Canadian MD-granting medical schools who passed all USMLE Step examinations by 2011 and obtained a medical license in the United States, using data from the NBME and the Federation of State Medical Boards. Logistic regressions estimated how attempts on Steps 1, 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), and 3 examinations influenced the likelihood of receiving disciplinary actions by 2018, while accounting for physician characteristics. Results A total of 3,399 physicians (2%) received at least 1 disciplinary action. Additional attempts needed to pass Steps 1, 2 CK, and 3 were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving disciplinary actions (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.13; OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16; OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.17, respectively), after accounting for other factors. Conclusions Physicians who took multiple attempts to pass Steps 1, 2 CK, and 3 were associated with higher estimated likelihood of receiving disciplinary actions. This study offers support for licensure and practice standards to account for physicians’ USMLE attempts. The relatively small effect sizes, however, caution policy makers from placing sole emphasis on this relationship.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
The announcement of the closure of Philadelphia’s Hahnemann University Hospital in June 2019 sent shock waves through the academic community. The closure had a devastating impact on the residents and fellows who trained there, the patients who had long received their care there, and faculty and staff who had provided care there for decades. Since its beginnings, the hospital, established as part of Hahnemann Medical College in 1885, was a major site for medical student education. The authors share the planning before and actions during the crisis that protected the educational experiences of third- and fourth-year medical students at Drexel University College of Medicine assigned to Hahnemann University Hospital. The lessons they learned can be helpful to leadership in academic health systems in the United States facing a diminishing number of clinical training sites for medical and other health professions students, a situation that is likely to worsen as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to weaken the health care ecosystem.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
The clinical learning environment (CLE) encompasses the learner’s personal characteristics and experiences, social relationships, organizational culture, and the institution’s physical and virtual infrastructure. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all 4 of these parts of the CLE have undergone a massive and rapid disruption. Personal and social communications have been limited to virtual interactions or shifted to unfamiliar clinical spaces because of redeployment. Rapid changes to the organizational culture required prompt adaptations from learners and educators in their complex organizational systems yet caused increased confusion and anxiety among them. A traditional reliance on a physical infrastructure for classical educational practices in the CLE was challenged when all institutions had to undergo a major transition to a virtual learning environment.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThe term “health systems science” (HSS) has recently emerged as a unifying label for competencies in health care delivery and in population and community health. Despite strong evidence that HSS competencies are needed in the current and future health care workforce, heretofore the integration of HSS into medical education has been slow or fragmented—due, in part, to a lack of evidence that these curricula improve education or population outcomes. The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the national reckoning with racial inequities in the United States further highlight the time-sensitive imperative to integrate HSS content across the medical education continuum. While acknowledging challenges, the authors highlight the unique opportunities inherent in an HSS curriculum and present an elaborated curricular framework for incorporating health care delivery and population health into undergraduate medical education. This framework includes competencies previously left out of medical education, increases the scope of faculty development, and allows for evidence of effectiveness beyond traditional learner-centric metrics. The authors apply a widely adopted 6-step approach to curriculum development to address the unique challenges of incorporating HSS. Two examples—of a module on quality improvement (health care delivery) and of an introductory course on health equity (population and community health)—illustrate how the 6-step approach can be used to build HSS curricula. The Supplemental Digital Appendix (at http://links.lww.com/ACADMED/B106) outlines this approach and provides specific examples and resources. Adapting these resources within local environments to build HSS curricula will allow medical educators to ensure future graduates have the expertise and commitment necessary to effect health systems change and to advocate for their communities, while also building the much-needed evidence for such curricula.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted both that frontline workers face a new set of personal hazards in health care settings and that there are not well-established recommendations to address the broader risks to these workers and their families. Particularly vulnerable households include dual health care professional households, single-parent health care professional households, and households with health care professionals responsible for a high-risk family member (i.e., an older adult or immunocompromised person). While the demographics of these households are heterogeneous, it is expected that the professional and personal concerns specific to COVID-19 will be similar. These concerns include family safety, balancing full-time work with home-based schooling for children, the looming threat of illness to 1 or both partners, the potential of infecting high-risk family members, and the challenges of planning for the future during uncertain times. To elucidate these concerns in their department, the authors sought input from colleagues in dual health care professional households through an open-ended email communication. Respondents expressed a range of concerns centered on balancing professional and family responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this commentary, the authors propose several recommendations in the areas of support networks, leadership and culture, and operations and logistics that health care institutions can adopt to minimize the burden on these vulnerable households during states of emergency. The successful implementation of these recommendations hinges on creating a work environment in which all health care providers feel comfortable voicing their concerns.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageDifferent models of learning health systems are emerging. At Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the Learning Health Care System (LHS) Platform was established with the goal of creating generalizable knowledge. This differentiates the LHS Platform from other efforts that have adopted a quality improvement paradigm. By supporting pragmatic trials at the intersection of research, operations, and clinical care, the LHS Platform was designed to yield evidence for advancing content and processes of care through carefully designed, rigorous study.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted administration of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) exam in March 2020 due to public health concerns. As the scope and magnitude of the pandemic became clearer, the initial plans by the USMLE program’s sponsoring organizations (NBME and Federation of State Medical Boards) to resume Step 2 CS in the short-term shifted to long-range plans to relaunch an exam that could harness technology and reduce infection risk. Insights about ongoing changes in undergraduate and graduate medical education and practice environments, coupled with challenges in delivering a transformed examination during a pandemic, led to the January 2021 decision to permanently discontinue Step 2 CS. Despite this, the USMLE program considers assessment of clinical skills to be critically important. The authors believe this decision will facilitate important advances in assessing clinical skills.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
No abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
The discontinuation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) in 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic marked the end of a decades-long debate about the utility and value of the exam. For all its controversy, the implementation of Step 2 CS in 2004 brought about profound changes to the landscape of medical education, altering the curriculum and assessment practices of medical schools to ensure students were prepared to take and pass this licensing exam. Its elimination, while celebrated by some, is not without potential negative consequences. As the responsibility for assessing students’ clinical skills shifts back to medical schools, educators must take care not to lose the ground they have gained in advancing clinical skills education. Instead, they need to innovate, collaborate, and share resources; hold themselves accountable; and ultimately rise to the challenge of ensuring that physicians have the necessary clinical skills to safely and effectively practice medicine.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageProblem Health professions education does not routinely incorporate training in innovation or creative problem solving. Although some models of innovation education within graduate medical education exist, they often require participants’ full-time commitment and removal from clinical training or rely upon participants’ existing expertise. There is a need for curricula that teach innovation skills that will enable trainees to identify and solve unmet clinical challenges in everyday practice. To address this gap in surgical graduate education, the authors developed the Surgical Program in Innovation (SPIN). Approach SPIN, a 6-month workshop-based curriculum, was established in 2016 in the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Department of Surgery to teach surgical trainees the basics of the innovation process, focusing on surgeon-driven problem identification, product design, prototype fabrication, and initial steps in the commercialization process. Participating surgical residents and graduate students attend monthly workshops taught by medical, engineering, and medical technology (MedTech) industry faculty. Participants collaborate in teams to develop a novel device, fabricate a protype, and pitch their product to a panel of judges. Outcomes From academic years 2015–2016 to 2017–2018, 49 trainees, including 41 surgical residents, participated in SPIN. Across this period, 13 teams identified an unmet need, ideated a solution, and designed and pitched a novel device. Ten teams fabricated prototypes. The 22 SPIN participants who responded to both pre- and postcourse surveys reported significant increases in confidence in generating problem statements, computer-aided design, fabrication of a prototype, and initial commercialization steps (product pitching and business planning). Next Steps Incorporating innovation education and design thinking into clinical training will prove essential in preparing future physicians to be lifelong problem finders and solvers. The authors plan to expand SPIN to additional clinical specialties, as well as to assess its impact in fostering future innovation and collaboration among program participants.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
In this Invited Commentary, the authors explore the implications of the dissolution of the Step 2 Clinical Skills Examination (Step 2 CS) for medical student clinical skills assessment. The authors describe the need for medical educators (at both the undergraduate and graduate levels) to work collaboratively to improve medical student clinical skills assessment to assure the public that medical school graduates have the requisite skills to begin residency training. The authors outline 6 specific recommendations for how to capitalize on the discontinuation of Step 2 CS to improve clinical skills assessment: (1) defining national, end-of-clerkship, and transition-to-residency standards for required clinical skills and for levels of competence; (2) creating a national resource for standardized patient, augmented reality, and virtual reality assessments; (3) improving workplace-based assessment through local collaborations and national resources; (4) improving learner engagement in and coproduction of assessments; (5) requiring, as a new standard for accreditation, medical schools to establish and maintain competency committees; and (6) establishing a national registry of assessment data for research and evaluation. Together, these actions will help the medical education community earn the public’s trust by enhancing the rigor of assessment to ensure the mastery of skills that are essential to providing safe, high-quality care for patients.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Parental leave for new parents is essential as they adjust to the physical and psychological changes that accompany childbirth and caring for a newborn. This study sought to determine the current state of parental leave policies for medical students at medical schools in the United States. Method From November to December 2019, 2 researchers independently reviewed the websites of 199 U.S. MD-granting and DO-granting medical schools (including in U.S. territories). Online student handbooks and school webpages were searched for the following keywords: “pregnant” OR “pregnancy” OR “maternity” OR “parent” OR “family” OR “child” OR “birth.” Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact tests evaluated differences in proportion by group. Results Of 199 schools, 65 (32.66%) had parental leave policies available online or in the handbook: 39 of 155 (25.16%) MD-granting and 26 of 44 (59.09%) DO-granting schools. Of those policies, 59 (90.77%) were included in the student handbook. Most policies (28, 43.08%) were included as an option within the school’s general leave of absence policy. Both parents were included in 38 (58.46%) policies; 23 (35.38%) policies mentioned only mothers; and 4 (6.15%) were unknown. An option to maintain original graduation date was offered in 21 (32.1%) schools’ policies. Three schools (4.62%) included adoption as qualifying for parental leave. When comparing MD and DO programs, DO programs were statistically more likely to have a parental leave policy: 39 (25.16%) vs 26 (59.09%); P
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) was discontinued in January 2021, marking a significant milestone in assessment of clinical skills. In this commentary, the authors trace the history of the Step 2 CS exam—beginning with its early roots in the 1960s up to its discontinuation in 2021. In this new era, the medical education community is replete with opportunities for advancing methodology and content associated with clinical skills assessment. The authors propose 3 main lessons gleaned from this rich history and modern evolution, which are aimed at defining a future that includes creative collaboration toward development of comprehensive, equitable, student-focused, and patient-centered clinical performance assessment.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) sequence and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones represent 2 major components along the continuum of assessment from undergraduate through graduate medical education. This study examines associations between USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores and ACGME emergency medicine (EM) milestone ratings. Method In February 2019, subject matter experts (SMEs) provided judgments of expected associations for each combination of Step examination and EM subcompetency. The resulting sets of subcompetencies with expected strong and weak associations were selected for convergent and discriminant validity analysis, respectively. National-level data for 2013–2018 were provided; the final sample included 6,618 EM residents from 158 training programs. Empirical bivariate correlations between milestone ratings and Step scores were calculated, then those correlations were compared with the SMEs’ judgments. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted on the selected subcompetencies, in which milestone ratings were the dependent variable, and Step 1 score, Step 2 CK score, and cohort year were independent variables. Results Regression results showed small but statistically significant positive relationships between Step 2 CK score and the subcompetencies (regression coefficients ranged from 0.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01–0.03] to 0.12 [95% CI, 0.11–0.13]; all P
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageThe unexpected discontinuation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) exam in January 2021 carries both risks and opportunities for medical education in the United States. Step 2 CS had far-reaching effects on medical school curricula and school-based clinical skills assessments. Absent the need to prepare students for this high-stakes exam, will the rigor of foundational clinical skills instruction and assessment remain a priority at medical schools? In this article, the authors consider the potential losses and gains from the elimination of Step 2 CS and explore opportunities to expand local summative assessments beyond the narrow bounds of Step 2 CS.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Acute care teams work in dynamic and complex environments and must adapt to changing circumstances. A team process that helps teams process information and adapt is in-action team reflection (TR), defined as concurrent collective reflection on group objectives, strategies, or processes during an ongoing care event. However, the health care field lacks a means for systematically observing and ultimately training in-action TR in acute care teams. To bridge this gap, the authors developed a theoretically and empirically informed framework, Team Reflection Behavioral Observation (TuRBO), for measuring in-action TR. Method In 2018 at ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, the authors developed a theoretical framework based on the literature and theory. They then conducted exploratory reviews of preexisting videos of acute care teams training simulated emergencies. The authors adapted observation codes using an iterative approach. Using the developed coding framework, they coded 23 video recordings of acute care teams and provided validity evidence from the 3 sources: content, internal structure (interrater reliability), and relations to other variables. Results The final TuRBO framework consists of 3 general dimensions—seeking information, evaluating information, and planning—that are further specified in 7 subcodes. Interrater agreement of the coding was substantial (κ = 0.80). As hypothesized, the data showed a positive relationship between in-action TR and team performance. Also, physicians spent significantly more time on in-action TR than nurses. Conclusions The TuRBO framework for assessing in-action TR in acute care teams provides positive validity evidence of the data. TuRBO integrates different team communication and calibration processes under the overarching concept of in-action TR and provides descriptive behavioral markers. TuRBO taps into powerful cultural and normative components of patient safety. This tool can augment team training that allows all team members to serve as an important resource for flexible, resilient, and safer patient care.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, women in medicine, including faculty, residents, medical students, and other health care workers (HCWs), are facing unparalleled challenges. The burdens of pandemic-associated increases in domestic and caregiving responsibilities, professional demands, health risks associated with contracting COVID-19, and the resulting psychosocial distress have exacerbated existing gender disparities at home, at work, and in academia. School and day care closures have created additional childcare needs, primarily for women, yet little support exists for parents and families. These increased childcare and domestic responsibilities have forced women HCWs, who make up the overwhelming majority of the workforce, to adapt their schedules and, in some cases, leave their jobs entirely.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imagePurpose In 2024, international medical graduates seeking Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification will be required to graduate from an accredited medical school. This study’s goal was to examine relationships between medical school accreditation variables and ECFMG certification for a global sample. Method Using ECFMG databases, the authors created a 10-year cohort (January 1, 2007–December 31, 2016) of certification applicants, defined as individuals who had attempted at least 2 examinations required for certification. The authors aggregated applicant data at the school level, excluding schools with
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
More than 7% of medical students graduate from medical school with at least 1 nonspouse dependent, the majority of whom are likely children. However, there are no national studies on medical students who are parents, and very little is known about what medical schools are doing to support them. A growing literature on the experiences of residents and attending physicians who are parents has neglected to include those of medical students who are parents. It is possible that focusing on research and policy change for residents and attending physicians who are parents without considering medical students may bring about improvements that come too late for many. Further data are needed both on the available policies for students who are parents and on the experiences and needs of these students. Leading national organizations in medical education can help guide medical schools by leveraging their national networks to highlight existing best practices and to foster discussions about how best to support medical students who are parents.
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am
imageNo abstract available
Posted: September 1, 2021, 12:00 am