Academic Medicine

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Academic Medicine serves as an international forum for the exchange of ideas and information about policy, issues, and research concerning academic medicine, including strengthening the quality of medical education and training, enhancing the search for biomedical knowledge, advancing research in health services, and integrating education and research into the provision of effective health care.

imagePurpose Health professions education accreditation standards influence institutional practices and policies and ensure high-quality education that meets the needs of patients and society. Social mission is the contribution of a school in its mission, programs, and the performance of its graduates, faculty, and leadership to advancing health equity and addressing the health disparities of the society in which it exists. This study examined the scope of social mission content in major U.S. and Canadian health professions education accreditation standards. Method The authors analyzed publicly available accreditation standards documents from 9 accreditors across 5 disciplines—dental, medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physician assistant schools—with effective years from 2016 to 2020. They created a codebook from the previously published social mission metrics survey, which includes 18 social mission activity areas and 79 indicators within those areas. The authors then conducted detailed document reviews to identify the presence of the social mission areas and indicators within the accreditation standards. Results Across all 18 activity areas and 9 accreditors, the authors identified 93 instances of social mission. Curriculum was the most well-represented area with 34 instances. Interprofessional education in curriculum was the most prevalent indicator with 17 instances. The Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools included more social mission areas and indicators than the other accreditors. Conclusions There is substantial variability in the social mission content in accreditation standards across accreditors and disciplines. The authors found little representation of key aspects of social mission, including community collaborations, faculty training, and pipeline programs. These findings highlight areas of potential interdisciplinary collaboration to enhance the social mission content of health professions education.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageProblem Women comprise 7 out of every 10 health care workers globally yet are significantly underrepresented in leadership positions. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated underlying gender disparities, placing additional burdens on many female global health professionals. Approach The authors describe the development of a novel, low-cost pilot program—the Female Global Scholars Program (Weill Cornell Medicine)—established in April 2018 to promote the advancement of female global health research professionals and prepare them for leadership positions in this field. Using a logic model, the program was informed by discussion with peers at scientific symposia, qualitative research examining the barriers women experience in global health, discussions with experts in the fields of global health and medical education, and a literature review of other initiatives focused on fostering female advancement. The program provides opportunities to learn leadership skills and peer mentoring to female junior investigators in global health research over the course of 2 years through attendance of a symposium and skill-building workshop, skill-building webinars, and the building of a peer mentor group. Outcomes The inaugural cohort of the Female Global Scholars Program (April 2018–March 2020) included 10 female global health researchers from 6 countries (Haiti, India, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and the United States) across 3 continents. By the end of year 1, 6 participants received academic promotions. Additionally, the inaugural 10 scholars collectively presented at 11 international conferences and submitted 22 abstracts and 19 manuscripts. Next Steps The authors hope to provide additional support and guidance to scholars as they become leaders of their own versions of this program at their home sites and plan to expand the faculty group to further lessen the time burden, while enabling the program to provide additional research mentorship to scholars.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Firearm injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. However, many medical professionals currently receive minimal or no education on firearm injury or its prevention. The authors sought to convene a diverse group of national experts in firearm injury epidemiology, injury prevention, and medical education to develop consensus on priorities to inform the creation of learning objectives and curricula for firearm injury education for medical professionals. Method In 2019, the authors convened an advisory group that was geographically, demographically, and professionally diverse, composed of 33 clinicians, researchers, and educators from across the United States. They used the nominal group technique to achieve consensus on priorities for health professions education on firearm injury. The process involved an initial idea-generating phase, followed by a round-robin sharing of ideas and further idea generation, facilitated discussion and clarification, and the ranking of ideas to generate a prioritized list. Results This report provides the first national consensus guidelines on firearm injury education for medical professionals. These priorities include a set of crosscutting, basic, and advanced learning objectives applicable to all contexts of firearm injury and all medical disciplines, specialties, and levels of training. They focus on 7 contextual categories that had previously been identified in the literature: 1 category of general priorities applicable to all contexts and 6 categories of specific contexts, including intimate partner violence, mass violence, officer-involved shootings, peer (nonpartner) violence, suicide, and unintentional injury. Conclusions Robust, data- and consensus-driven priorities for health professions education on firearm injury create a pathway to clinician competence and self-efficacy. With an improved foundation for curriculum development and educational program-building, clinicians will be better informed to engage in a host of firearm injury prevention initiatives both at the bedside and in their communities.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageThe field of data science has great potential to address critical questions relevant for academic medical centers. Data science initiatives are consequently being established within academic medicine. At the cornerstone of such initiatives are scientists who practice data science. These scientists include biostatisticians, clinical informaticians, database and software developers, computational scientists, and computational biologists. Too often, however, those involved in the practice of data science are viewed by academic leadership as providing a noncomplex service to facilitate research and further the careers of other academic faculty. The authors contend that the success of data science initiatives relies heavily on the understanding that the practice of data science is a critical intellectual contribution to the overall science conducted at an academic medical center. Further, careful thought by academic leadership is needed for allocation of resources devoted to the practice of data science. At the Stanford University School of Medicine, the authors have developed an innovative model for a data science collaboratory based on 4 fundamental elements: an emphasis on collaboration over consultation, a subscription-based funding mechanism that reflects commitment by key partners, an investment in the career development of faculty who practice data science, and a strong educational component for data science members in team science and for clinical and translational investigators in data science. As data science becomes increasingly essential to learning health systems, centers that specialize in the practice of data science are a critical component of the research infrastructure and intellectual environment of academic medical centers.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
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Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Nearly all health care professionals engage in continuous professional development (CPD), yet little is known about the cost and cost-effectiveness of physician CPD. Clarification of key concepts, comprehensive identification of published work, and determination of research gaps would facilitate application of existing evidence and planning for future investigations. The authors sought to systematically map study themes, methods, and outcomes in peer-reviewed literature on the cost and value of physician CPD. Method The authors conducted a scoping review, systematically searching MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Library databases for comparative economic evaluations of CPD for practicing physicians through April 2020. Two reviewers, working independently, screened all articles for inclusion. Three reviewers iteratively reviewed all included articles to inductively identify key features including participants, educational interventions, study designs, cost ingredients, and cost analyses. Two reviewers then independently reexamined all included articles to code these features. Results Of 3,338 potentially eligible studies, 111 were included. Physician specialties included internal, family, or general medicine (80 studies [72%]), surgery (14 studies [13%]), and medicine subspecialties (7 studies [6%]). Topics most often addressed general medicine (45 studies [41%]) or appropriate drug use (37 studies [33%]). Eighty-seven studies (78%) compared CPD with no intervention. Sixty-three studies (57%) reported the cost of training, and 79 (71%) evaluated the economic impact (money saved/lost following CPD). Training cost ingredients (median 3 itemized per study) and economic impact ingredients (median 1 per study) were infrequently and incompletely identified, quantified, or priced. Twenty-seven studies (24%) reported cost–impact expressions such as cost-effectiveness ratio or net value. Nineteen studies (17%) reported sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Studies evaluating the costs and economic impact of physician CPD are few. Gaps exist in identification, quantification, pricing, and analysis of cost outcomes. The authors propose a comprehensive framework for appraising ingredients and a preliminary reference case for economic evaluations.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageThis article describes the University of Minnesota Medical School Proposal Preparation Program (P3). P3 is designed to develop grant-writing skills for assistant professors preparing their first K- or R-series application to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Three 4-month P3 cycles are conducted annually. For each cycle, a cohort of around 10 assistant professor participants and 5 regular faculty mentors meet for ten ~2-hour group sessions. Participants receive iterative oral and written feedback on their proposals in development within a small, interdisciplinary, group mentoring setting providing structure, accountability, guidance, and support. Between sessions, 1 peer and 1 mentor are assigned (on a rotating basis) to critique each participant’s developing application. The sessions include a brief mentor-led presentation on a particular grant section followed by discussion of each participant’s application conducted by the assigned reviewers. The cycle concludes with a mock NIH review session, in which each participant is matched with a University of Minnesota faculty content expert who critiques their completed application using NIH guidelines. In a survey sent to all past P3 participants as of 2018 (n = 194), 88% of respondents reported having submitted their P3-developed NIH grant, and 35% of these submitters reported funding success. A separate analysis of institutional data for all past P3 participants as of 2016 (n = 165) showed that 73% submitted at least 1 NIH proposal since completing P3 and that 43% of these had acquired NIH funding, for a combined total of $193 million in funding awarded. The estimated rate at which participants obtained funding for their P3-developed grant application (~35%) exceeds the national annual NIH grant funding rates (~20%) by approximately 50%. This article provides the practical information needed for other institutions to implement a P3-like program and presents a cost–benefit analysis showing the advantages of doing so.
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imagePurpose The Teaching Health Center (THC) Graduate Medical Education program enables primary care physicians to train in community-based, underserved settings by shifting the payment structure and training environment for graduate medical education. To understand how THCs have successfully trained primary care physicians who practice in community-based settings, the authors conducted a mixed-methods exploratory study to examine THC residency graduates’ experiences of mentorship and career planning during their residencies, perceptions of preparation for postresidency practice, and how these experiences were related to postresidency practice environments. Method Surveys were conducted for all 804 graduating THC residents nationally, 2014–2017 (533 respondents, 66% response rate). Three quantitative outcomes were measured: graduates’ perceptions of preparation for practice after residency (Likert scale), satisfaction with mentorship and career planning (Likert scale), and characteristics of postresidency practice environment (open-ended). A qualitative analysis of open-text survey answers, using thematic content analysis, was also conducted. Results Most THC graduates (68%) were satisfied with their mentorship and career planning experience and generally felt prepared for postresidency practice in multiple settings (78%–93%). Of the 533 THC graduates who provided information about their practice environment, 445 (84%) were practicing in primary care; nationally, 64% of physicians who completed primary care residencies practiced in primary care. Of the 445 THC graduates practicing in primary care, 12% practiced in rural areas, compared with 7% of all physicians. Just over half of THC graduates (51%) practiced in medically underserved areas, compared with 39% of all physicians. Conclusions This study offers early evidence that the THC model produces and retains primary care physicians who are well prepared to practice in underserved areas. Given these promising findings, there appears to be a substantial benefit to growing the THC program. However, the program continues to face uncertainty around ongoing, stable funding.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageThe author was invited to write a commentary on the ethics of health professions education research. Based on the author’s own experiences, published guidelines, and discussions with international colleagues, the author found that research ethics can be roughly grouped into 3 distinct areas, each with its own distinct aims: protecting the integrity of science, protecting the integrity of research subjects, and protecting the integrity of authorship. The focus of this commentary is to provide some guiding thoughts on each of the 3 areas for mentors of emerging health professions education scholars.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Team-based learning (TBL) has gained popularity across the health professions, including in interprofessional contexts. The authors conducted this systematic review to summarize the published evidence regarding the extent, design, and practice of interprofessional TBL within health professions (including medical) degree programs to inform interprofessional education (IPE) educators and curricula designers. Method In June 2020, the authors searched PubMed Central, CINAHL, Web of Science, and ERIC for original research articles describing TBL programs with student representation from multiple health professions degree programs that were published between January 2010 and June 2020. Included articles underwent data extraction for study characteristics (e.g., country of origin, topics covered, class descriptors) and the 7 core design elements of TBL: team formation, readiness assurance, immediate feedback, sequencing of in-class problem solving, the 4 Ss (significant problem, same problem, specific choice, and simultaneous reporting), incentive structure, and peer review. Results Twelve articles were included. Significant variability was noted in the application and reporting of the 7 core design elements of TBL, which highlighted challenges to the implementation of interprofessional TBL. Conclusions Although the structured format of TBL provides a suitable pedagogy for IPE, this review identified challenges associated with the effective integration of IPE into TBL, including: the unequal distribution of students to teams as a result of there being multiple disciplines from different programs; varied levels of student experience with the pedagogy of TBL; a lack of resources required for large groups of students; timetabling requirements for multiple disciplines from different programs; inability to provide more than 1 TBL session; design of patient cases that suit multiple disciplines; alignment of topics within the curricula of multiple disciplines, programs, and universities; inequities in grading for different students within the same TBL program; and limited opportunity for peer review.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
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Rapidly advancing biomedical and electronic technologies, ongoing health disparities, and new online educational modalities are all changing medicine and medical education. As medical training continues to evolve, research is increasingly critical to help improve it, but medical education research can pose unique ethical challenges.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageAcademic health centers and health systems increasingly ask patients to enroll in research biobanks as part of standard care, raising important practical and ethical questions for integrating biobank consent processes into health care settings. This article aims to assist academic health centers and health systems considering implementing these integrated consent processes by outlining the 5 main issues—and the key practical and ethical considerations for each issue—that Indiana University Health and the Indiana Biobank faced when integrating biobank consent into their health system, as well as the key obstacles encountered. The 5 main issues to consider include the specimen to collect (leftover, new collection, or add-ons to clinical tests), whether to use opt-in or opt-out consent, where to approach patients, how to effectively use digital tools for consent, and how to appropriately simplify consent information.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
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The author recalls the summer of 1965, which he spent in Holmes County, Mississippi, as a medical civil rights worker. The poverty, bravery, ignorance, brotherhood, racism, hate, and love he experienced that summer led him to conclude he would become a civil rights doctor. When he returned to medical school in Chicago, the author and his classmates began organizing students around the idea of social justice. They intended to take on society’s big problems even as their medical education ignored them.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageProblem The professional formation of physicians begins in the premedical years, and educators are now recommending that medical ethics and humanities courses be considered essential components to becoming a physician rather than elective prerequisites for medical school admission. As a result, questions have arisen about how to teach students ethical reasoning skills before their professional training, as they have limited opportunities now to develop these skills and the related competencies in a real-world medical context. Approach The authors describe Santa Clara University’s Health Care Ethics Internship (HCEI), an undergraduate college experience that emphasizes ethical inquiry and immerses students in health care settings to foster deep learning. The HCEI includes mentored clinical rotations integrated with classroom inquiry into ethical theory, structured reflection, and professional development considerations. A survey of former students (academic years 2001–2002 to 2017–2018) explored their perceptions of these program components and the impact of the experience on their preprofessional readiness, career choice, and professional capabilities. Outcomes Of 185 former students who could be contacted, 89 (48.1%) completed the survey. Students reported that the HCEI: (1) assisted them in gaining admission to medical school, (2) had a positive influence on their career decisions, (3) increased their professional capabilities, (4) helped them develop preprofessional competencies, (5) gave them knowledge and experience they used in their personal and professional ethical decision making, and (6) increased their moral sensitivity and ethical responsibility. Next Steps Integrating clinical rotations into ethics education exposes premedical students to real-world ethical questions, helps them develop a nuanced understanding of a health care career, and prepares them for the medical school admissions process. Other universities should consider implementing a similar program to prime their students for continued professional and moral development during medical school and residency.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageThe Liaison Committee on Medical Education accreditation process is an important component of professional regulation and is used by medical schools to strengthen their medical education programs. Accreditation-related consultations with schools often include a review of relevant documents, stakeholder interviews, and mock site visits. A review by the author of this commentary of these consultations at 17 schools showed variability in how information regarding diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) was incorporated and discussed in accreditation-related materials and interviews.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageProblem Voting affords citizens a direct say in the leaders and policies that affect their health. However, less than 20% of eligible U.S. citizens have been offered the chance to register to vote at a government-funded agency like a hospital or clinic that provides Medicaid or Medicare services. Medical students are well positioned to increase voting access due to their interactions with multiple actors in health care settings, including patients, visitors, colleagues, and others. Approach Vot-ER, a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that aims to promote civic engagement in health care settings, launched the inaugural Healthy Democracy Campaign from July 20 to October 9, 2020. As part of this national, gamification-based competition, medical student captains were recruited to lead teams of health care trainees and professionals that helped eligible adults start the voter registration and/or mail-in ballot request process before the November 2020 elections. Post competition, medical student captains were surveyed about their motivations for participating and skills and knowledge gained. Outcomes In total, 128 medical student captains at 80 medical schools in 31 states and the District of Columbia formed teams that helped 15,692 adults start the voter registration and/or mail-in ballot request process. Eighty-two (64.1%) captains responded to the post competition survey, representing 56 (70.0%) of the participating schools. The top-ranked motivation for participating in the campaign was the desire to address social and racial inequities (37, 45.1%). Respondents reported gaining skills and knowledge in several aspects of civic engagement, including community organizing (67, 81.7%) and voting rights (63, 76.8%). The majority of respondents planned to incorporate voter registration into their future practice (76, 92.7%). Next Steps Future Healthy Democracy Campaigns will aim to continue closing the voting access gap and promote the long-term inclusion of hands-on civic engagement in medical education and practice.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageSocial mission efforts in health professions education are designed to advance health equity and address the health disparities of the society in which they exist. While there is growing evidence that social mission–related interventions are associated with intended outcomes such as practice in underserved communities, student diversity, and students graduating with skills and knowledge that prepare them to address societal needs, critical evidence gaps remain that limit the possibility of generalizing findings and using social mission strategically to advance health equity. At a time when COVID-19 has been laying bare health disparities related to systemic racism and maldistribution of resources, understanding how health professions training can produce the workforce needed to advance health equity becomes even more imperative. Yet, data and methods limitations are hindering progress in this critical research.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imagePurpose Medical schools must have clear policies and procedures for promotion and tenure (P&T) of faculty. Social media and digital scholarship (SMDS) is an emerging form of scholarship capable of reaching audiences quickly, conveniently, and in a wide variety of formats. It is unclear how frequently SMDS is considered during P&T reviews. The authors sought to determine whether current P&T guidelines at medical schools consider SMDS. Method The authors acquired P&T guidelines from any U.S. Liaison Committee on Medical Education–accredited medical school (or their governing university) that were available online between October and December 2020. Using an iterative process, they developed a bank of keywords that were specific to SMDS or that could include SMDS between October and December 2020. The authors searched each school’s guidelines for each keyword and determined whether the word was being used in relation to crediting faculty for SMDS in the context of P&T procedures. The primary outcome measure was the dichotomous presence or absence of SMDS-specific keywords in each school’s P&T guidelines. Results The authors acquired P&T guidelines from 145/154 (94%) medical schools. After removing duplicate documents, the authors considered 139 guidelines. The keyword bank included 59 terms, of which 49 were specific to SMDS and 10 were umbrella terms that could be inclusive of SMDS. Of the 139 guidelines, 121 (87%) contained at least 1 SMDS-specific keyword. Schools had a median of 3 SMDS-specific keywords in their P&T guidelines. Conclusions As the presence and impact of SMDS increase, schools should provide guidance on its role in the P&T process. Faculty should receive clear guidance on how to document quality SMDS for their promotion file.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
This article describes the authors’ personal experiences of collaborating across international borders in academic research. International collaboration in academic medicine is one of the most important ways by which research and innovation develop globally. However, the intersections among colonialism, academic medicine, and global health research have created a neocolonial narrative that perpetuates inequalities in global health partnerships. The authors critically examine the visa process as an example of a racist practice to show how the challenges of blocked mobility increase inequality and thwart research endeavors. Visas are used to limit mobility across certain borders, and this limitation hinders international collaborations in academic medicine. The authors discuss the concept of social closure and how limits to global mobility for scholars from low- and middle-income countries perpetuate a cycle of dependence on scholars who have virtually barrier-free global mobility—these scholars being mainly from high-income countries. Given the current sociopolitical milieu of increasing border controls and fears of illegal immigration, the authors’ experiences expose what is at stake for academic medicine when the political sphere, focused on tightening border security, and the medical realm, striving to build international research collaborations, intersect. Creating more equitable global partnerships in research requires a shift from the current paradigm that dominates most international partnerships and causes injury to African scholars.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imagePurpose To explore whether community college (CC) applicants were a significant contributor to the diversity of matriculants to physician assistant (PA) programs and whether CC applicants were less likely to matriculate to PA programs than non-CC applicants. Method The authors used national data from the 2016–2017 application cycle. They categorized applicants to PA programs into 5 pathways: HS-CC (applicant attended CC while in high school), first-CC (applicant attended CC before a 4-year university), 4Y-CC (applicant attended CC while at a 4-year university), post-CC (applicant attended CC after graduating from a 4-year university), and no-CC (applicant never attended CC). The authors used Pearson chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H tests and the appropriate post hoc tests to assess whether applicants in the 4 CC pathways were more diverse in terms of their race, ethnicity, gender, rurality, and socioeconomic status than those in the no-CC pathway. They used logistic regressions to assess associations between the CC pathways and matriculation to a PA program. Results Among the 8,577 matriculants in the 2016–2017 application cycle, more than 75% attended a CC at some point. First-CC and post-CC matriculants were more likely to be Black (P
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imagePurpose This study examined how mentoring relationships may reinforce or mitigate gender inequities in academic medicine. Method In-depth, semistructured interviews with medical school faculty members (52 women and 52 men) were conducted at 16 institutions across the United States in 2019. Institutions were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy to seek diversity in geography, ownership (private or public), and prestige. Within institutions, purposive sampling was used to recruit equal numbers of women and men and to seek diversity in degree type (MD, PhD), age, and career stage. A coding scheme was developed through iterative analysis of the interview transcripts. All interview transcripts were then coded with the goal of identifying intersections between mentorship and experiences of and responses to gender inequities. Results Four key themes at the intersection of mentoring relationships and gender inequities were identified. (1) Both women and men became aware of gender inequities in academic medicine through relationships with women mentors and mentees. (2) Both women and men mentors recognized the challenges their female mentees faced and made deliberate efforts to help them navigate an inequitable environment. (3) Both women and men mentors modeled work–family balance and created family friendly environments for their mentees. (4) Some women, but no men, reported being sexually harassed by mentors. Conclusions This study shows that mentoring relationships may be a context in which gender inequities are acknowledged and mitigated. It also shows that mentoring relationships may be a context in which gender inequities, such as sexual harassment, may occur. Sexual harassment in academic medicine has been widely documented, and gender inequity in academic medicine has proved persistent. While mentoring relationships may have the potential to identify and mitigate gender inequities, this study suggests that this potential remains largely unrealized.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageWith an increasing awareness of the disparate impact of COVID-19 on historically marginalized populations and acts of violence on Black communities in 2020, academic health centers across the United States have been prioritizing antiracism strategies. Often, medical students and residents have been educated in the concepts of equity and antiracism and are ready to tackle these issues in practice. However, faculty are not prepared to respond to or integrate antiracism topics into the curriculum. Leaders in faculty affairs, education, diversity, and other departments are seeking tools, frameworks, expertise, and programs that are best suited to meet this imminent faculty development need.
Posted: January 1, 2022, 12:00 am
imageBy March 2020, New York City became the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Consequently, Columbia University, with its large portfolio of human subjects research, had to address the challenges of protecting thousands of research participants and research staff from potential exposure to COVID-19 while facilitating essential biomedical research, especially pandemic-related studies. The authors describe, from the perspective of Columbia’s research administration leadership, how the University and its primary teaching hospital ramped down—and later ramped up—human subjects research and reflect on lessons learned.
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